Since the Industrial Revolution, organizations have allocated extensive time in research and operational models that reduce or eliminate the uncertainty when developing new offerings or interventions. By focusing exclusively on measurable and visible factors, they often neglect the individual and organizational behavioral sources of ambiguity underlying problems. These steps work well when patterns of daily lives, production processes, market dynamics, competition, and delivery channels are all roughly stable. But when all these factors change quickly – as they do today – the standard steps give a false sense of certainty.

Together with colleagues, I have been developing the Whole View, the Innovation Lenses, and the Four Is models as a response to three knowledge gaps that arise from working within two modern paradigms: how organizations plan and operate, and how they allocate resources.

Plans and Operations. The Innovation Gap concerns an organization’s ability to make and sell things growing faster than its knowledge about what people need, leaving greater uncertainty about what to make.

Resourses Allocation. The Discrepancy Gap deals with the myopic approaches to close material loops and the actual discrepancy between the inflows and outflows of diverse resources in our linear and fragmented production-consumption systems. The Impact Gap shows that organizations have been allocating resources to increase their wealth and impact through the overproduction of material goods at the expense of social inequity and environmental degradation.   


Whole View

The Whole View is a response to the Innovation Gap. When organizations don’t know what to make, they can benefit from a structure to explore the various possible options.

This conceptual model structures advanced frameworks and methods that can help teams integrate viewpoints of users, offerings, values, operations, and strategies around the purpose for making change.

It can be used to describe an organization or a project or prescribe changes.

Innovation Lenses

The Innovation Lenses is a response to the Discrepancy Gap. It structures diverse resources into eight classes that are further organized in three categories: Social (human, social, cultural, political), Ecological (natural), Technical (financial, manufactured, digital). This resource-based framework expands the perceptions of team members about the problems and opportunities ahead. It can be used to map an organization or ecosystem resources and assets, identify the resources flowing thought the interactions between agents in an ecosystem, and formulate criteria for future intervention considering how these resources should be redirected to support the well-being of people, organizations, and the ecosystems they live.

See Nogueira et al., 2019

Four Is

The Four Is is a response to the Impact Gap. With growing awareness of the finite resources on the planet and the inequitable wealth distribution of contemporary operations and business practices, many organizations have begun to explore more sustainable and equitable production-consumption systems to allocate their resources. The Four Is presents a resource-based approach with new frameworks and methods that help teams consider four ways that resources flow within the systems they are working in:

See Nogueira 2022 (under review)